Monitoring of Air Pollutants Using Plants and Co-Located Soil - Egypt: Characteristics and Pollution

Air Methods, Monitoring, and Technology
Oral Presentation

Prepared by W. Badawy1, J. Kim2, H. El-Samman3, N. Yushin1, M. Frontasyeva1
1 - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot Curie st., 6, Dubna, Moscow region, 141980, Russia
2 - University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue, Marie Curie, Troyes, Troyes Cedex, 10010, 2060, France
3 - Menoufia university, Gamal Abd El-Nasir, Shibin El-koom, Shibin El-koom, 32511, Egypt

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Two evergreen trees, Eucalyptus globulus Labill and Ficus benjamina L, as biomonitors were employed to quantify the extent of anthropogenic contamination. Thirty leaves and an equal number of collocated soil samples from different regions of Egypt (urban Cairo and rural Menoufia) were collected and the concentrations of 32 and 40 elements were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis in leaves and soil samples. The single Pollution Index and the Pollution Load Index (PLI) were applied to assess the spatial distribution of the concentration of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb and Ba. Reference Plant for leaves and Upper Continental Crust in the case of soils were used as normalizers. The findings of PLI spatial distribution showed that, urban samples (Great Cairo) showed significantly reduced values compared with rural ones (Menoufia). In addition, the study shows that the airborne material, which represents the main source of contaminants found in tree leaves, has a significant proportion of soil dust, which in turn, suggests the significant influence of latitudinal and climatic features - desert and arid - of Egypt.